Karamba3D 2.2.0
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3.7.12: ShellView

Fig. Utilization on a deformed shell
The “ShellView”-component works like the “BeamView”-component (see section 3.6.7) and controls the display of shell results. Fig. shows the resultant displacement of a shell.
Shell cross sections may consist of several layers (see section 3.3.2). The layer with index “0” spans the whole cross section height by default, the other layers can be used to e.g. specify reinforcement layers. With the “LayerInd”-input, which defaults to “0”, one can specify the cross section layer to be displayed. In order to set the location inside a layer one has to specify a fiber: “1” corresponds to the upper boundary, “−1” to the lower boundary of a layer. The local z-axis points to the upper boundary.
Since the shell layers may have arbitrary orientations, it is often useful to display their local coordinate systems. This can be done with the “Local layer axes”-radio button under the “Display Scales”-submenu. The slider there allows to adapt the size of the coordinate system arrows.
The color range of the results starts at the minimum value and stretches to the maximum. You can define individual color ranges for all result quantities in the "karamba.ini"-file. Alternatively it is possible to select from a list of color-ranges via the component's context menu: right-click on the component, go to item 'Colors' and select a color range. A “Legend”-component lets you inspect the meaning of the colors.
Under the sub-menu “Render Settings” one can choose from the following rendering options which always refer to the currently set layer:
"Cross section"
Shows the upper and lower surface of the current layer and adds them to the output at the “Mesh”-output plug. There are strips at the sides so that a closed volume results. The output meshes are welded together by default for to speed up their display. Set 'weld_shell_meshes_for_output' in the karamba.ini-file to false to get the meshes one by one.
Similar to "Cross section": adds colors at the vertices to indicate the thickness of the shell elements. The vertex colors result from the mean thickness of the faces they are connected to.
Renders the material utilization. The utilization is calculated as the ratio between the material strength and the material's equivalent stress (see section 3.5.1). A negative sign results if the negative value of the second principal stress is larger than the first principal stress. The output comprises two meshes symbolizing the utilization values on the top and bottom layer.
Colors the shell according to the resultant displacement.
"Princ. Stress 1"
Visualizes the resultant value of the first principal stress in the current fiber of the current layer. The fiber can be set with the “Position of results” slider (see below).
"Princ. Stress 2"
Displays the resultant value of the second principal stress in the current fiber.
"Equivalent Stress"
Renders the equivalent stress in the current layer and position. Its value depends on the strength hypothesis chosen for the shell layer's material (see section 3.5.1).
"Position of results"
Sets the position within the current shell layer where results are calculated. A value of 1 corresponds to the upper, −1 to the lower boundary of the current layer.
"Princ. Stress 1-2"
Enables or disables and scales the vector display of principal stresses in the current fiber of the current layer. Use the “Result Threshold” sliders in the “Display Scales”-menu of the “ModelView”-component to thin them out if necessary.